Dietary Assessment Primer


Apovian CM, Murphy MC, Cullum-Dugan D, Lin PH, Gilbert KM, Coffman G, Jenkins M, Bakun P, Tucker KL, Moore TJ. Validation of a web-based dietary questionnaire designed for the DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension) diet: the DASH online questionnaire. Public Health Nutr 2010 May;13(5):615-22. [View Abstract]

Arab L, Tseng CH, Ang A, Jardack P. Validity of a multipass, web-based, 24-hour self-administered recall for assessment of total energy intake in blacks and whites. Am J Epidemiol 2011 Dec 1;174(11):1256-65. [View Abstract]

Bailey RL, Dodd KW, Goldman JA, Gahche JJ, Dwyer JT, Moshfegh AJ, Sempos CT, Picciano MF. Estimation of total usual calcium and vitamin D intakes in the United States. J Nutr 2010 Apr;140(4):817-22. [View Abstract]

Bailey RL, McDowell MA, Dodd KW, Gahche JJ, Dwyer JT, Picciano MF. Total folate and folic acid intakes from foods and dietary supplements of US children aged 1-13 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2010 Aug;92(2):353-8. [View Abstract]

Baranowski T, Islam N, Baranowski J, Cullen KW, Myres D, Marsh T, de MC. The food intake recording software system is valid among fourth-grade children. J Am Diet Assoc 2002 Mar;102(3):380-5. [View Abstract]

Baranowski T, Islam N, Baranowski J, Martin S, Beltran A, Dadabhoy H, Adame SH, Watson KB, Thompson D, Cullen KW, Subar AF. Comparison of a Web-based versus traditional diet recall among children. J Acad Nutr Diet 2012 Apr;112(4):527-32. [View Abstract]

Baranowski T, Islam N, Douglass D, Dadabhoy H, Beltran A, Baranowski J, Thompson D, Cullen KW, Subar AF. Food Intake Recording Software System, version 4 (FIRSSt4): a self-completed 24-h dietary recall for children. J Hum Nutr Diet 2014 Jan;27 Suppl 1:66-71. [View Abstract]

Basiotis PP, Welsh SO, Cronin FJ, Kelsay JL, Mertz W. Number of days of food intake records required to estimate individual and group nutrient intakes with defined confidence. J Nutr 1987 Sep;117(9):1638-41. [View Abstract]

Baxter SD, Guinn CH, Royer JA, Hardin JW, Smith AF. Shortening the retention interval of 24-hour dietary recalls increases fourth-grade children's accuracy for reporting energy and macronutrient intake at school meals. J Am Diet Assoc 2010 Aug;110(8):1178-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.05.006. [View Abstract]

Baxter SD, Hardin JW, Guinn CH, Royer JA, Mackelprang AJ, Smith AF. Fourth-grade children's dietary recall accuracy is influenced by retention interval (target period and interview time). J Am Diet Assoc 2009 May;109(5):846-56. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.02.015. [View Abstract]

Baxter SD, Thompson WO, Litaker MS, Guinn CH, Frye FH, Baglio ML, Shaffer NM. Accuracy of fourth-graders' dietary recalls of school breakfast and school lunch validated with observations: in-person versus telephone interviews. J Nutr Educ Behav 2003 May-Jun;35(3):124-34. [View Abstract]

Beasley JM, Davis A, Riley WT. Evaluation of a web-based, pictorial diet history questionnaire. Public Health Nutr 2009 May;12(5):651-9. [View Abstract]

Bingham SA. Dietary assessments in the European prospective study of diet and cancer (EPIC). Eur J Cancer Prev 1997 Apr;6(2):118-24. [View Abstract]

Bingham SA. Biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology. Public Health Nutr 2002 Dec;5(6A):821-7. Review. [View Abstract]

Bingham SA. Urine nitrogen as a biomarker for the validation of dietary protein intake. J Nutr 2003 Mar;133 Suppl 3:921S-924S. Review. [View Abstract]

Black AE, Goldberg GR, Jebb SA, Livingstone MB, Cole TJ, Prentice AM. Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 2. Evaluating the results of published surveys. Eur J Clin Nutr 1991 Dec;45(12):583-99. Review. [View Abstract]

Block G, Hartman AM, Dresser CM, Carroll MD, Gannon J, Gardner L. A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. Am J Epidemiol 1986 Sep;124(3):453-69. [View Abstract]

Brustad M, Skeie G, Braaten T, Slimani N, Lund E. Comparison of telephone vs face-to-face interviews in the assessment of dietary intake by the 24 h recall EPIC SOFT program--the Norwegian calibration study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003 Jan;57(1):107-13. [View Abstract]

Burke, B. S. (1947). The dietary history as a tool in research. J Am Diet Assoc 6: 647-662.

Cantwell MM, Millen AE, Carroll R, Mittl BL, Hermansen S, Brinton LA, Potischman N. A debriefing session with a nutritionist can improve dietary assessment using food diaries. J Nutr 2006 Feb;136(2):440-5. [View Abstract]

Carroll, R., D. Ruppert, et al. Measurement Error in Nonlinear Models: A Modern Perspective, Chapman & Hall CRC Monographs on Statistics & Applied Probability.

Carroll RJ, Galindo CD. Measurement error, biases, and the validation of complex models for blood lead levels in children. Environ Health Perspect 1998 Dec;106 Suppl 6:1535-9. Review. [View Abstract]

Carroll RJ, Midthune D, Subar AF, Shumakovich M, Freedman LS, Thompson FE, Kipnis V. Taking advantage of the strengths of 2 different dietary assessment instruments to improve intake estimates for nutritional epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 2012 Feb 15;175(4):340-7. [View Abstract]

Casey PH, Goolsby SL, Lensing SY, Perloff BP, Bogle ML. The use of telephone interview methodology to obtain 24-hour dietary recalls. J Am Diet Assoc 1999 Nov;99(11):1406-11. [View Abstract]

Charlton KE, Steyn K, Levitt NS, Jonathan D, Zulu JV, Nel JH. Development and validation of a short questionnaire to assess sodium intake. Public Health Nutr 2008 Jan;11(1):83-94. [View Abstract]

Chinnock A. Validation of an estimated food record. Public Health Nutr 2006 Oct;9(7):934-41. [View Abstract]

Conway JM, Ingwersen LA, Moshfegh AJ. Accuracy of dietary recall using the USDA five-step multiple-pass method in men: an observational validation study. J Am Diet Assoc 2004 Apr;104(4):595-603. [View Abstract]

Crispim SP, de Vries JH, Geelen A, Souverein OW, Hulshof PJ, Lafay L, Rousseau AS, Lillegaard IT, Andersen LF, Huybrechts I, De Keyzer W, Ruprich J, Dofkova M, Ocke MC, de Boer E, Slimani N, van't Veer P. Two non-consecutive 24 h recalls using EPIC-Soft software are sufficiently valid for comparing protein and potassium intake between five European centres--results from the European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL) study. Br J Nutr 2011 Feb;105(3):447-58. [View Abstract]

Davis JN, Nelson MC, Ventura EE, Lytle LA, Goran MI. A brief dietary screener: appropriate for overweight Latino adolescents? J Am Diet Assoc 2009 Apr;109(4):725-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.12.025. [View Abstract]

Day N, McKeown N, Wong M, Welch A, Bingham S. Epidemiological assessment of diet: a comparison of a 7-day diary with a food frequency questionnaire using urinary markers of nitrogen, potassium and sodium. Int J Epidemiol 2001 Apr;30(2):309-17. [View Abstract]

Dodd KW, Guenther PM, Freedman LS, Subar AF, Kipnis V, Midthune D, Tooze JA, Krebs-Smith SM. Statistical methods for estimating usual intake of nutrients and foods: a review of the theory. J Am Diet Assoc 2006 Oct;106(10):1640-50. Review. [View Abstract]

Dwyer JT, Holden J, Andrews K, Roseland J, Zhao C, Schweitzer A, Perry CR, Harnly J, Wolf WR, Picciano MF, Fisher KD, Saldanha LG, Yetley EA, Betz JM, Coates PM, Milner JA, Whitted J, Burt V, Radimer K, Wilger J, Sharpless KE, Hardy CJ. Measuring vitamins and minerals in dietary supplements for nutrition studies in the USA. Anal Bioanal Chem 2007 Sep;389(1):37-46. Review. [View Abstract]

Freedman LS, Commins JM, Moler JE, Arab L, Baer DJ, Kipnis V, Midthune D, Moshfegh AJ, Neuhouser ML, Prentice RL, Schatzkin A, Spiegelman D, Subar AF, Tinker LF, Willett W. Pooled results from 5 validation studies of dietary self-report instruments using recovery biomarkers for energy and protein intake. Am J Epidemiol 2014 Jul 15;180(2):172-88. [View Abstract]

Freedman LS, Guenther PM, Dodd KW, Krebs-Smith SM, Midthune D. The population distribution of ratios of usual intakes of dietary components that are consumed every day can be estimated from repeated 24-hour recalls. J Nutr 2010 Jan;140(1):111-6. [View Abstract]

Freedman LS, Guenther PM, Krebs-Smith SM, Dodd KW, Midthune D. A population's distribution of Healthy Eating Index-2005 component scores can be estimated when more than one 24-hour recall is available. J Nutr 2010 Aug;140(8):1529-34. [View Abstract]

Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population. J Nutr 2004 Jul;134(7):1836-43. Erratum in: J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1524. Bingham, Sheila A [added]. [View Abstract]

Freedman LS, Midthune D, Carroll RJ, Krebs-Smith S, Subar AF, Troiano RP, Dodd K, Schatzkin A, Bingham SA, Ferrari P, Kipnis V. Adjustments to improve the estimation of usual dietary intake distributions in the population. J Nutr 2004 Jul;134(7):1836-43. Erratum in: J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1524. Bingham, Sheila A [added]. [View Abstract]

Freedman LS, Potischman N, Kipnis V, Midthune D, Schatzkin A, Thompson FE, Troiano RP, Prentice R, Patterson R, Carroll R, Subar AF. A comparison of two dietary instruments for evaluating the fat-breast cancer relationship. Int J Epidemiol 2006 Aug;35(4):1011-21. [View Abstract]

Freedman LS, Schatzkin A, Midthune D, Kipnis V. Dealing with dietary measurement error in nutritional cohort studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 2011 Jul 20;103(14):1086-92. [View Abstract]

Freisling H, van Bakel MM, Biessy C, May AM, Byrnes G, Norat T, Rinaldi S, Santucci de Magistris M, Grioni S, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Ocké MC, Kaaks R, Teucher B, Vergnaud AC, Romaguera D, Sacerdote C, Palli D, Crowe FL, Tumino R, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Trichopoulou A, Naska A, Orfanos P, Boeing H, Illner AK, Riboli E, Peeters PH, Slimani N. Dietary reporting errors on 24 h recalls and dietary questionnaires are associated with BMI across six European countries as evaluated with recovery biomarkers for protein and potassium intake. Br J Nutr 2012 Mar;107(6):910-20. [View Abstract]

Garriguet D. Combining nutrient intake from food/beverages and vitamin/mineral supplements. Health Rep 2010 Dec;21(4):71-84. [View Abstract]

Gibson, R. S. (2005). Principles of Nutritional Assessment, Oxford University Press, USA.

Goldberg GR, Black AE, Jebb SA, Cole TJ, Murgatroyd PR, Coward WA, Prentice AM. Critical evaluation of energy intake data using fundamental principles of energy physiology: 1. Derivation of cut-off limits to identify under-recording. Eur J Clin Nutr 1991 Dec;45(12):569-81. Review. [View Abstract]

Hackett A. Food Frequency Questionnaires: simple and cheap, but are they valid? Matern Child Nutr 2011 Apr;7(2):109-11. [Look up in PubMed]

Hansson LM, Galanti MR, Bergström R. Factors affecting reproducibility of dietary reports using food frequency questionnaires. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000 Aug;54(8):658-64. [View Abstract]

Harrison GG, Galal OM, Ibrahim N, Khorshid A, Stormer A, Leslie J, Saleh NT. Underreporting of food intake by dietary recall is not universal: a comparison of data from egyptian and american women. J Nutr 2000 Aug;130(8):2049-54. [View Abstract]

Harttig U, Haubrock J, Knüppel S, Boeing H; EFCOVAL Consortium. The MSM program: web-based statistics package for estimating usual dietary intake using the Multiple Source Method. Eur J Clin Nutr 2011 Jul;65 Suppl 1:S87-91. [View Abstract]

Hebert JR, Hurley TG, Peterson KE, Resnicow K, Thompson FE, Yaroch AL, Ehlers M, Midthune D, Williams GC, Greene GW, Nebeling L. Social desirability trait influences on self-reported dietary measures among diverse participants in a multicenter multiple risk factor trial. J Nutr 2008 Jan;138(1):226S-234S. [View Abstract]

Hébert JR, Peterson KE, Hurley TG, Stoddard AM, Cohen N, Field AE, Sorensen G. The effect of social desirability trait on self-reported dietary measures among multi-ethnic female health center employees. Ann Epidemiol 2001 Aug;11(6):417-27. [View Abstract]

Heerstrass DW, Ocké MC, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Peeters PH, Seidell JC. Underreporting of energy, protein and potassium intake in relation to body mass index. Int J Epidemiol 1998 Apr;27(2):186-93. [View Abstract]

Heitmann BL, Lissner L. Dietary underreporting by obese individuals--is it specific or non-specific? BMJ 1995 Oct 14;311(7011):986-9. [View Abstract]

Hollis JF, Gullion CM, Stevens VJ, Brantley PJ, Appel LJ, Ard JD, Champagne CM, Dalcin A, Erlinger TP, Funk K, Laferriere D, Lin PH, Loria CM, Samuel-Hodge C, Vollmer WM, Svetkey LP; Weight Loss Maintenance Trial Research Group. Weight loss during the intensive intervention phase of the weight-loss maintenance trial. Am J Prev Med 2008 Aug;35(2):118-26. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.04.013. [View Abstract]

Huang Y, Van Horn L, Tinker LF, Neuhouser ML, Carbone L, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Thomas F, Prentice RL. Measurement error corrected sodium and potassium intake estimation using 24-hour urinary excretion. Hypertension 2014 Feb;63(2):238-44. [View Abstract]

Johnson F, Wardle J, Griffith J. The Adolescent Food Habits Checklist: reliability and validity of a measure of healthy eating behaviour in adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 Jul;56(7):644-9. [View Abstract]

Jonnalagadda SS, Benardot D, Dill MN. Assessment of under-reporting of energy intake by elite female gymnast. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000 Sep;10(3):315-25. [View Abstract]

Kaaks RJ. Biochemical markers as additional measurements in studies of the accuracy of dietary questionnaire measurements: conceptual issues. Am J Clin Nutr 1997 Apr;65(4 Suppl):1232S-1239S. Review. [View Abstract]

Kerr, D. and T. Schap (2012). Chapter 7. Analysis, Presentation, and Interpretation of Dietary Data. Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease. A. M. Coultson, C. J. Boushey and M. G. Ferruzzi, San Diego, CA, Elsevier Press.

Kipnis V, Freedman LS, Brown CC, Hartman A, Schatzkin A, Wacholder S. Interpretation of energy adjustment models for nutritional epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 1993 Jun 15;137(12):1376-80. [View Abstract]

Kipnis V, Freedman LS, Brown CC, Hartman AM, Schatzkin A, Wacholder S. Effect of measurement error on energy-adjustment models in nutritional epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol 1997 Nov 15;146(10):842-55. [View Abstract]

Kipnis V, Subar AF, Midthune D, Freedman LS, Ballard-Barbash R, Troiano RP, Bingham S, Schoeller DA, Schatzkin A, Carroll RJ. Structure of dietary measurement error: results of the OPEN biomarker study. Am J Epidemiol 2003 Jul 1;158(1):14-21; discussion 22-6. [View Abstract]

Kirkpatrick SI, Subar AF, Douglass D, Zimmerman TP, Thompson FE, Kahle LL, George SM, Dodd KW, Potischman N. Performance of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall relative to a measure of true intakes and to an interviewer-administered 24-h recall. Am J Clin Nutr 2014 Apr 30;100(1):233-240. [Epub ahead of print] [View Abstract]

Kirkpatrick SI, Subar AF, Douglass D, Zimmerman TP, Thompson FE, Kahle LL, George SM, Dodd KW, Potischman N. Performance of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Recall relative to a measure of true intakes and to an interviewer-administered 24-h recall. Am J Clin Nutr 2014 Apr 30;100(1):233-240. [Epub ahead of print] [View Abstract]

Kohlmeier L. Gaps in dietary assessment methodology: meal- vs list-based methods. Am J Clin Nutr 1994 Jan;59(1 Suppl):175S-179S. [View Abstract]

Krebs-Smith SM, Graubard BI, Kahle LL, Subar AF, Cleveland LE, Ballard-Barbash R. Low energy reporters vs others: a comparison of reported food intakes. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000 Apr;54(4):281-7. [View Abstract]

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Lafay L, Mennen L, Basdevant A, Charles MA, Borys JM, Eschwège E, Romon M. Does energy intake underreporting involve all kinds of food or only specific food items? Results from the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Santé (FLVS) study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000 Nov;24(11):1500-6. [View Abstract]

Lanfer A, Hebestreit A, Ahrens W, Krogh V, Sieri S, Lissner L, Eiben G, Siani A, Huybrechts I, Loit HM, Papoutsou S, Kovács E, Pala V; IDEFICS Consortium. Reproducibility of food consumption frequencies derived from the Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire used in the IDEFICS study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Apr;35 Suppl 1:S61-8. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2011.36. [View Abstract]

Lee CD, Chae J, Schap TE, Kerr DA, Delp EJ, Ebert DS, Boushey CJ. Comparison of known food weights with image-based portion-size automated estimation and adolescents' self-reported portion size. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2012 Mar 1;6(2):428-34. [View Abstract]

Madden JP, Goodman SJ, Guthrie HA. Validity of the 24-hr. recall. Analysis of data obtained from elderly subjects. J Am Diet Assoc 1976 Feb;68(2):143-7. [View Abstract]

Maurer J, Taren DL, Teixeira PJ, Thomson CA, Lohman TG, Going SB, Houtkooper LB. The psychosocial and behavioral characteristics related to energy misreporting. Nutr Rev 2006 Feb;64(2 Pt 1):53-66. Review. [View Abstract]

McDonald A, Van Horn L, Slattery M, Hilner J, Bragg C, Caan B, Jacobs D Jr, Liu K, Hubert H, Gernhofer N, et al. The CARDIA dietary history: development, implementation, and evaluation. J Am Diet Assoc 1991 Sep;91(9):1104-12. [View Abstract]

Mensink GB, Haftenberger M, Thamm M. Validity of DISHES 98, a computerised dietary history interview: energy and macronutrient intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 2001 Jun;55(6):409-17. [View Abstract]

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Mertz W, Tsui JC, Judd JT, Reiser S, Hallfrisch J, Morris ER, Steele PD, Lashley E. What are people really eating? The relation between energy intake derived from estimated diet records and intake determined to maintain body weight. Am J Clin Nutr 1991 Aug;54(2):291-5. [View Abstract]

Millen AE, Tooze JA, Subar AF, Kahle LL, Schatzkin A, Krebs-Smith SM. Differences between food group reports of low-energy reporters and non-low-energy reporters on a food frequency questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 2009 Jul;109(7):1194-203. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.04.004. [View Abstract]

Molag ML, de Vries JH, Ocké MC, Dagnelie PC, van den Brandt PA, Jansen MC, van Staveren WA, van't Veer P. Design characteristics of food frequency questionnaires in relation to their validity. Am J Epidemiol 2007 Dec 15;166(12):1468-78. [View Abstract]

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Natarajan L, Pu M, Fan J, Levine RA, Patterson RE, Thomson CA, Rock CL, Pierce JP. Measurement error of dietary self-report in intervention trials. Am J Epidemiol 2010 Oct 1;172(7):819-27. [View Abstract]

Neuhouser ML, Tinker L, Shaw PA, Schoeller D, Bingham SA, Horn LV, Beresford SA, Caan B, Thomson C, Satterfield S, Kuller L, Heiss G, Smit E, Sarto G, Ockene J, Stefanick ML, Assaf A, Runswick S, Prentice RL. Use of recovery biomarkers to calibrate nutrient consumption self-reports in the Women's Health Initiative. Am J Epidemiol 2008 May 15;167(10):1247-59. [View Abstract]

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Parr CL, Hjartåker A, Scheel I, Lund E, Laake P, Veierød MB. Comparing methods for handling missing values in food-frequency questionnaires and proposing k nearest neighbours imputation: effects on dietary intake in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC). Public Health Nutr 2008 Apr;11(4):361-70. [View Abstract]

Poslusna K, Ruprich J, de Vries JH, Jakubikova M, van't Veer P. Misreporting of energy and micronutrient intake estimated by food records and 24 hour recalls, control and adjustment methods in practice. Br J Nutr 2009 Jul;101 Suppl 2:S73-85. Review. [View Abstract]

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Prentice RL, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Huang Y, Van Horn L, Beresford SA, Caan B, Tinker L, Schoeller D, Bingham S, Eaton CB, Thomson C, Johnson KC, Ockene J, Sarto G, Heiss G, Neuhouser ML. Evaluation and comparison of food records, recalls, and frequencies for energy and protein assessment by using recovery biomarkers. Am J Epidemiol 2011 Sep 1;174(5):591-603. [View Abstract]

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Resnicow K, Odom E, Wang T, Dudley WN, Mitchell D, Vaughan R, Jackson A, Baranowski T. Validation of three food frequency questionnaires and 24-hour recalls with serum carotenoid levels in a sample of African-American adults. Am J Epidemiol 2000 Dec 1;152(11):1072-80. [View Abstract]

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Subar AF, Dodd KW, Guenther PM, Kipnis V, Midthune D, McDowell M, Tooze JA, Freedman LS, Krebs-Smith SM. The food propensity questionnaire: concept, development, and validation for use as a covariate in a model to estimate usual food intake. J Am Diet Assoc 2006 Oct;106(10):1556-63. [View Abstract]

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Subar AF, Kipnis V, Troiano RP, Midthune D, Schoeller DA, Bingham S, Sharbaugh CO, Trabulsi J, Runswick S, Ballard-Barbash R, Sunshine J, Schatzkin A. Using intake biomarkers to evaluate the extent of dietary misreporting in a large sample of adults: the OPEN study. Am J Epidemiol 2003 Jul 1;158(1):1-13. [View Abstract]

Subar AF, Midthune D, Kulldorff M, Brown CC, Thompson FE, Kipnis V, Schatzkin A. Evaluation of alternative approaches to assign nutrient values to food groups in food frequency questionnaires. Am J Epidemiol 2000 Aug 1;152(3):279-86. [View Abstract]

Subar AF, Thompson FE, Kipnis V, Midthune D, Hurwitz P, McNutt S, McIntosh A, Rosenfeld S. Comparative validation of the Block, Willett, and National Cancer Institute food frequency questionnaires : the Eating at America's Table Study. Am J Epidemiol 2001 Dec 15;154(12):1089-99. [View Abstract]

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